Department is created in 2018 by combining the “Department of the field crops gene pool” and “Laboratory of immunity and plant protection.”
The department of the field crops gene pool was created in 1996 by head of the department Doctor of Biological Sciences M.A.Yessimbekova (1996-2018). The purpose of the creation of the field crops gene pool department was the formation of an effective system of storage, reproduction, extension and utilization of the gene pool.
The laboratory of immunity and plant protection was founded in 1973 by candidate biol.Sciences N.F.Pisareva. The purpose of the laboratory was to increase the immunological potential of the created varieties. Since 1982, the laboratory has been renamed the laboratory of immunity and plant protection, head of laboratory Sarbaev A.T. (1982-2018).
The department employs 12 people, including 3 doctors of biological and agricultural sciences, 1 candidate of biological sciences, 1 doctor of PhD, 3 masters, 4 senior laboratory assistants.
Main research areas
- Sustainable development of agricultural crop collections through targeted collection and replenishment;
- Rational (long-term and medium-term) conservation of crop genetic resources;
- Identification of collections, according to the principles of the relevant criteria of long-term support from the state;
- Monitoring the genetic diversity of plants, pathogens and pests of agricultural crops;
- Standardization of information management for crop genetic resources based on international descriptors;
- Differentiation of collection and selection material of agricultural crops for resistance to diseases and pests;
- Search for plant protection against diseases, pests and weeds;
- Participation in breeding programs within the requirements of the gene pool and plant immunity;
- Search for sources of resistance for selection for immunity;
- Improving the system of immunological evaluation and selection of resistant forms;
- Improvement of integrated protection of grain crops from diseases, pests and weeds in the conditions of the South-East of Kazakhstan.
Services provided by department
- Evaluation and selection of resistant forms of wheat, barley and other agricultural products. crops for fungal diseases and pests: assessment and selection on an artificially infectious background (selection for resistance);
- Testing of new plant protection products: determination of biological and economic efficiency of protective measures;
- Determination of contamination by diseases and pest infestation of crop seeds (phytoexamination of seeds);
- Integrated protection of field crops against diseases, pests and weeds (phytosanitary monitoring, protective measures).
For the first time in Kazakhstan, rational medium-term storage of the gene pool of 29 agricultural crops was organized (more than 17.0 thousand accessions. ≈ 1/3 of the national gene pool of the Republic of Kazakhstan). Herbarium and seed material 1220 accessions of wild-relatives of cereals, fodder crops and medicinal herbs of the of Kazakhstan’s natural flora were collected, combined, systematized and reproduced, and on their basis, a collection of local species of these groups of cultures has been formed, put into storage.
Every year more than 3000 accessions were evaluated for economically valuable traits. By the results of the evaluation identified accessions with economically valuable traits / genes. For utilization, about 10.0 thousand accessions were transferred to the breeding programs of the Scientific Research Institutions (SRI) of the Republic of Kazakhstan and scientific subdivisions of KazRIAPG with the aim of creating new varieties of domestic breeding, the competitiveness of which will be improved by “new genetic content” that guarantees environmental plasticity, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. It produces a hybrid population that are at different stages of the breeding study.
Within the framework of the studies performed, documentation priorities were identified – collection and system analysis of available information on plant genetic resources (PGRFA) at SRI MA RK. Training sessions on documenting plant genetic resources were passed in international centers: computer programs, descriptors sheets were mastered, it is established that the standards used are international, laid the foundation for the structure of the national database on PGRFA, i.e. created the National Information System for documenting PGRFA RK.
The national database (NDB PGRFA RK) contains passport information of 55867 accessions of 223 crops of 9 groups according to economic use – cereals, legumes, fodder, vegetables, fruits, technical, groats, medicinal, forest and forest-forming, which are identified by status, seasonality, originator of the collection
Created 6 varieties of winter bread wheat. Two varieties – Yegemen and Ramin are included in the list of varieties recommended for use since 2006 and 2008 in the Turkestan and Almaty regions, respectively. With the participation of the gene pool material, rust-resistant and high-yielding varieties of winter wheat have been created – Raminal, Alikhan and Azharly, transferred to the State Variety Testing.
Pest control measures for grain and fodder crops have been developed (DP Aleksandrov, EA Aleksandrova, 1973). The regularity of the development of the yellow rust in the mountainous regions of the south-east of the republic is established. Developed and tested scale of disease severity. Proposed control measures (YD Zeynalova 1972). Inoculation methods was refined (PM Dzhumabaev, NF Pisareva, AD Djanuzakov, Y.D. Zeynalova, S.I. Bayrakimov, G.N.Abdulahanova, A.E.Walter, A.S.Zhangaziev, B.S.Pshaeva, R.Sarsekeeva, L.Shamenova, A.Elgandiyevaet al., 1973-1981).
The immunological parameters and models created agroecotypes of wheat, adjusted the direction of selection for group resistance by region (A.T. Sarbaev, 1985, 2000). Rust-resistant mutant lines were obtained, initial material for breeding winter wheat was created, the genetics of characters was studied. Specified biological features of the causative agent of yellow and stem rust. Wheat inoculation methods of with yellow rust was improved.
The immunological properties and parameters of resistance of more than 130 thousand variety samples of the world and local collection were determined; Formed a feature collection of 1253 numbers; More than 2.5 thousand lines were transferred to the breeders: 46 isogenic lines for the formation of the gene pool; for breeding use – 289 samples; for testing in older breeding nurseries at the final stages of the selection process – 186 variety samples.
Together with the breeders created 5 new winter varieties; 6 – spring wheat; 1 – barley; 1 – triticale; 3 – corn; 1 – mogar; 2 – sorghum. There is a patent on with the manual cultivation of green manure on green manure with a minimal technology.